OSINT | Investigating Phone Numbers Mini-Toolkit

Recently, I started reading through the “Open Source Intelligence Tools and Resources Handbook 2020” released by I-Intelligence. I don’t know if “reading through” is the right word, as it is literally just a dump of different sites that may or may not be up, may or may not work, and may or may not be behind a paywall. This is an issue for me, so as I go through the book I’m going to attempt to audit each section and pick the links relevant to me out, give brief overviews of what they do, and leave them here for your use. Today, we’ll be going over investigating phone numbers in the US. In this section of the book it has a lot of links that relate to foreign phone numbers, phone call privacy/blocking/callerID, and more. If they didn’t relate directly to looking up a US number, I didn’t look further into them.

  • Caller ID Test – You can see the phone number and the associated name.
  • Caller Smart – Gives similar info to the link above, but includes the carrier. Carrier info is sometimes wrong.
  • Carrier Lookup – Gives you the carrier. Carrier is usually correct.
  • Free Carrier Lookup – Similar info to the link above, carrier is usually correct.
  • Reveal Name – Provides the info on the person the number belongs to, and the correct carrier.
  • SpyTox – The first site to actually confirm an accurate first and last name with one of the more challenging phone numbers I was testing it with. Most of the info is blocked behind a paywall, but the free info it provides could be gold in certain situations. It has some misinformation that tries to get someone to make the purchase though (says things like this number was found on Tinder, AshleyMadison, etc.).
  • Z LookUp – Provides a relatively accurate name that is usually associated with the phone number.

The golden chalice (tools I found along the way that I like):

  • Synapsint – This had no relevant info on any of the numbers I tried, but boy, does its email search work well. It even includes cleartext passwords from different breaches, along with some extra info. Extremely useful, and I’m leaving this here for later.
  • Fast People Search – This is my go to currently in terms of looking people/numbers up. Really fantastic, gives back some strong and mostly accurate results. Of course with this kind of stuff it won’t be 100% accurate information, but dang, this one gives you a ton of info to explore.
  • Intelligence X – Honestly, fantastic. They’ve got a lot of other tools besides the third party phone number search, and can find a lot of info surrounding accounts from different database breaches. If you sign up with a school email account, you also get access to more searches and a lot of extra stuff for free.

If you have any suggestions/changes/questions, feel free to fill out the “Contact Me” form.

OzSec2020 CTF | 1<3W!r35h4rk Challenge

Recently (it’s still going as I write this post), I’ve been able to participate in the OzSec2020 Capture-The-Flag competition. There were a couple challenges that were pretty interesting, and the Wireshark one was something I didn’t know existed/hadn’t touched before, so I just wanted to post a short write-up covering it. As of right now, it’s 20 minutes until the CTF ends and my team is sitting at 2nd place, so we ended up doing pretty decently!

But let’s go ahead and jump into it. If you want to follow along, feel free to download the .pcap file from here. Here is the challenge itself:

So, opening up the .pcap file we see a bunch of packets falling under the label 802.11, and this challenge mentions that we need to decipher the .pcap, and investigate it using a tool (or tools) on Kali (we’ll be using Wireshark).

First, to decipher the .pcap, we can go ahead and throw it at aircrack-ng. To read more on cracking 802.11 WEP using aircrack, click here. In short though, aircrack-ng is able to recover the WEP key once enough encrypted packets have been captured, and this .pcap has loads of them.

A key has been successfully found! Sweet! Now we just have to go over into Wireshark to decipher the packets, and find the correct request. For more in-depth step-by-step guide on the ins and outs of decrypting 802.11 in Wireshark, click here.

Now we actually have to find the password itself. All of our packets are decrypted, and the entirety of the .pcap file is looking a lot more readable. But it’s a large file, and we don’t want to go chasing down random rabbit-holes attempting to find the password. The question we have to ask ourselves is:

  • What type of request would a web-based admin panel have for completing a password change?

And our answer to that is: an http POST request. This isn’t a sure fire way to find it, and if we hadn’t found it this way there is another thing we could try, but for now let’s focus on the POST request. It’s just a very common way to handle passwords, and along with that, this is an admin panel in a browser we’re talking about, so we need to remember to include http in our filter.

Nice! Only one packet, let’s open it up:

And there you can see the password. It is besides the “PassPhrase=” section. This is the quick and easy way to solve it. If we hadn’t been able to find it using that filter, we probably would have ended up dumping the http.data through tshark and grep’ing for stuff like “pass”, “flag”, “phrase”, etc. It can definitely vary between CTFs, but a good addition would be to grep for their designated layout for flags as well. So if I was doing a MetaCTF challenge, and had a dump of data, I might look for “MetaCTF{” because that’s how most of their flags start.

Looks like we ended up officially taking second place as well!

Thanks for giving this a read, and if you have any recommendations, criticisms, or questions, feel free to reach out.

TryHackMe | Simple CTF Box

Ready for another one? Let’s do it! As per usual, let’s do an nmap scan and see what’s going on.

Time to break it down:

  • Port 80: We can check for a site of some kind here in the web browser, and also look up the version of Apache to see if their are any vulnerabilities/exploits for it.
  • Same tactics can be applied to port 21 and port 2222, check the versions for vulnerabilities.

Personally, I like to start with the website in these instances, as you are usually guaranteed to have something there. The main page for this site is the default Apache page though, so let’s see if Dirbuster will give us any directories.

Let’s see what’s hiding in that /simple/ directory.

Pulling the site up shows us that the framework being used is “CMS Made Simple” version 2.2.8. Let’s see if there are any vulnerabilities for that.

Time to download and run the exploit:

The command I ran to get the output is the command below the output

Let’s break this command up a little bit:

  • “python” runs the exploit we downloaded as it is a .py file.
  • “46635.py” is the exploit file.
  • “-u” is referring to the target (basically). It is referring to the URL.
  • “–crack” says that you want to crack the passwords found and
  • “-w” is referring to the wordlist you want to use to crack the password

We found two usernames, here’s one of them:

Now that we cracked the password and have a username to attempt to use, let’s try out ssh’ing on port 2222.

Sweet! We made it in! Now we can take a look around.

There’s the user flag. Time to escalate privileges. The first step (especially in these beginner boxes) that I take is to perform the command “sudo -l”.

From there we are able to observe that vim can be run without the root password, so let’s check out GTFO Bins to see what we can do with vim.

Trying out the first option, it is a complete success! Let’s deconstruct why this works.

  • “sudo” runs program as superuser.
  • “NOPASSWD” in “sudo -l” means this user has the privilege level to run this program as the superuser without needing to authenticate.
  • “vim” the program we are running as the superuser.
  • “-c” designates a command to be read after the first file.
  • “‘:!/bin/sh'” is the command executed by the “-c” bit. It will run the shell as the elevated user, making you root.

That’s the end of it! Thanks for reading!

TryHackMe | RootMe Box

So, as per usual, let’s kick it off with an nmap scan:

We notice that two ports are open; 22-ssh, and 80-http. Web sites are always fun in CTFs and leave lots of different places to stuff clues and challenges, so let’s check out the site first, and run Dirbuster on it at the same time to see if it has any hidden directories.

Two important directories that are needed for us. /panel, and /uploads. Panel brings us to this page:

Which WILL NOT take a standard .php file (my poor reverse shell). And we can assume once we get past this roadblock, that the shell we will be executing is going to be located in the /uploads directory.

So I have a simple little minimalist reverse shell I like to use for php (nothing fancy, I should probably upgrade). I just need to run this command:

And switch it over to a php5 extension instead of php. This is called a “file name bypass” and hoodwinks the file name validation the upload functionality has in place. You can read further up on this here, but essentially, this is a type of blacklisting bypass. We found out that a php file is blacklisted from being uploaded, but to bypass this, we just have to try an unpopular php extension such as: php3, phpt, php5, php6, etc.

And wouldn’t ya know, it works! Let’s go verify that our reverse shell is now inside of the uploads directory.

Before clicking on it, make sure to get a netcat listener running.

You might have to do some things to stabilize this shell. As I said, it is extremely minimalist. Now we just need to search for a file with SUID permissions, and find the one that sticks out. We can do this by running the following command:

One major one that sticks out that I’ve used before can be seen here:

Python is great if you have access to it. Check out GTFO Bins for some more information. Keep in mind that this is SUID related, and we already have access to python.

That means we just need to run the second command there.

And boom, you’re root.